Understanding how DOXIL® works1-7

  • Anthracyclines, used alone or in combination with other agents, have long been an integral part of some of the most active therapies for hematologic and solid tumors1,2
  • DOXIL® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection), an anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitor, is encapsulated in STEALTH® liposomes for intravenous use3
    • Greater than 90% of the drug is encapsulated in the STEALTH® liposomes3
  • The mechanism of action of doxorubicin HCl, the active ingredient, is thought to be related to its ability to bind DNA and inhibit nucleic acid synthesis. Cell structure studies have demonstrated rapid cell penetration and perinuclear chromatin binding, rapid inhibition of mitotic activity and nucleic acid synthesis, and induction of mutagenesis and chromosomal aberrations3

MPEG-DSPE=methoxypolyethylene glycol–1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.


STEALTH® liposomes deliver doxorubicin HCl3-7

  • STEALTH® technology is a liposomal coating that evades detection and destruction by the immune system4,5
  • The pegylated liposomes are small and can pass into tumors*6
  • At least 90% of doxorubicin measured in the plasma remained encapsulated in the liposome during circulation3
  • DOXIL® concentration is higher in malignant tissue than in healthy tissue*7
  • Encapsulation in STEALTH® liposomes enables DOXIL® to penetrate the leaky membranes that are commonly found in cancer tissue. DOXIL® may also affect normal tissue4,5

Prolonged plasma levels following infusion†3

  • Second phase half-life of a DOXIL® 20 mg/m2 dose was approximately 55 hours†3
  • Plasma clearance of total doxorubicin following DOXIL® administration at a dose of 20 mg/m2 was 0.041 L/h/m2 vs 24 L/h/m2 to 35 L/h/m2 with conventional doxorubicin3
    • The pharmacokinetic parameters for total doxorubicin reported were following a single dose of DOXIL® infused over 30 minutes in a refractory or intolerant AIDS-related Kaposi's Sarcoma patient population3

*Correlation to clinical effect has not been established.

DOXIL® displayed linear pharmacokinetics over the range of 10 mg/m2 to 20 mg/m2. Relative to DOXIL® doses at or below 20 mg/m2, the pharmacokinetics of total doxorubicin following a 50 mg/m2 DOXIL® dose are nonlinear. At this dose, the elimination half-life of DOXIL® is longer and the clearance lower compared to a 20 mg/m2 dose.3


DOXIL® and STEALTH® are registered trademarks of ALZA Corporation.


References

  1. Rubin EH, Hait WN. Anthracyclines and DNA Intercalators/epipodophyllotoxins/campthothecins/DNA topoisomerases. In: Kuf DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al, eds. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 6th ed. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker; 2003. www.ncbi.nih.gov/books/NBK12354/. Accessed September 13, 2016.

  2. Hortobagyi GN. Anthracyclines in the treatment of cancer. Drugs. 1997;54(suppl 4):1-7.

  3. DOXIL® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) Prescribing Information. Janssen Products, LP, Horsham, PA.

  4. Working PK, Newman MS, Huang SK, et al. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin encapsulated in STEALTH® liposomes (DOXIL®). J Liposome Res. 1994;4:667-687.

  5. Bulbake U, Doppalapudi S, Kommineni N, et al. Liposomal formulations in clinical use: an updated review. Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(2)12. doi:10.3390/ pharmaceutics9020012.

  6. Gabizon A, Shmeeda H, Barenholz Y. Pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: review of animal and human studies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42(5):419-436.

  7. Northfelt DW. Liposomal anthracycline chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's Sarcoma. Oncology. 1997;11(10)(suppl 11):21-32.

  

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: CARDIOMYOPATHY and INFUSION-RELATED REACTIONS

DOXIL® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) can cause myocardial damage, including congestive heart failure, as the total cumulative dose of doxorubicin HCl approaches 550 mg/m2. In a clinical study of 250 patients with advanced cancer who were treated with DOXIL®, the risk of cardiotoxicity was 11% when the cumulative anthracycline dose was between 450-550 mg/m2. Prior use of other anthracyclines or anthracenediones should be included in calculations of total cumulative dosage. The risk of cardiomyopathy may be increased at lower cumulative doses in patients with prior mediastinal irradiation. See additional information on Cardiomyopathy in Warnings and Precautions below.

Acute infusion-related reactions consisting of, but not limited to, flushing, shortness of breath, facial swelling, headache, chills, back pain, tightness in the chest or throat, and/or hypotension occurred in 11% of patients with solid tumors treated with DOXIL®. Serious, life-threatening and fatal infusion reactions have been reported. Medications/emergency equipment to treat such reactions should be available for immediate use. See additional information on Infusion-Related Reactions in Warnings and Precautions below.

Contraindications

DOXIL® is contraindicated in patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, to doxorubicin HCl.

Warnings and Precautions

Cardiomyopathy: Doxorubicin HCl can result in myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure. The risk of cardiomyopathy with doxorubicin HCl is generally proportional to the cumulative exposure. The relationship between cumulative DOXIL® dose and the risk of cardiac toxicity has not been determined. Assess left ventricular cardiac function (e.g. MUGA or echocardiogram) prior to initiation of DOXIL®, during treatment to detect acute changes, and after treatment to detect delayed cardiotoxicity. Administer DOXIL® to patients with a history of cardiovascular disease only when the potential benefit of treatment outweighs the risk.

Infusion-Related Reactions: Serious and sometimes life-threatening infusion-related reactions characterized by one or more of the following symptoms can occur with DOXIL®: flushing, shortness of breath, facial swelling, headache, chills, chest pain, back pain, tightness in the chest and throat, fever, tachycardia, pruritus, rash, cyanosis, syncope, bronchospasm, asthma, apnea, and hypotension. The majority of infusion-related events occurred during the first infusion. Ensure that medications to treat infusion-related reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitative equipment is available for immediate use prior to initiation of DOXIL®. Initiate DOXIL® infusions at a rate of 1 mg/min and increase rate as tolerated. In the event of an infusion-related reaction, temporarily stop the drug until resolution then resume at a reduced infusion rate. Discontinue DOXIL® infusion for serious or life-threatening infusion-related reactions.

Hand-foot syndrome (HFS): HFS may occur during therapy with DOXIL®. Based on HFS toxicity grade, dose reduction, delay in administration, or discontinuation of DOXIL® may be required.

  • HFS was generally observed after 2 to 3 cycles of treatment, but may occur earlier

  • Delay DOXIL® for the first episode of Grade 2 or greater HFS

  • Discontinue DOXIL® if HFS is severe and debilitating

Secondary Oral Neoplasms: Cases of secondary oral cancer have been reported in patients with more than one year's exposure to DOXIL®. Cases were diagnosed both during treatment and up to 6 years after the last dose. Patients should be examined at regular intervals for the presence of oral ulceration or any oral discomfort that may be indicative of secondary oral cancer.

Embryofetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, DOXIL® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during and for 6 months after treatment with DOXIL®.

Adverse Reactions

Most common adverse reactions observed with DOXIL® (>20%) are asthenia, fatigue, fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, diarrhea, constipation, hand-foot syndrome, rash, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia.

Use in Specific Populations

Lactation: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, discontinue nursing during treatment with DOXIL®.

INDICATIONS

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer whose disease has progressed or recurred after platinum-based chemotherapy.

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients after failure of prior systemic chemotherapy or intolerance to such therapy.

DOXIL® in combination with bortezomib is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have not previously received bortezomib and have received at least one prior therapy.

Click here to see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNINGS.

020669-150414

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: CARDIOMYOPATHY and INFUSION-RELATED REACTIONS

DOXIL® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) can cause myocardial damage, including congestive heart failure, as the total cumulative dose of doxorubicin HCl approaches 550 mg/m2. In a clinical study of 250 patients with advanced cancer who were treated with DOXIL®, the risk of cardiotoxicity was 11% when the cumulative anthracycline dose was between 450-550 mg/m2. Prior use of other anthracyclines or anthracenediones should be included in calculations of total cumulative dosage. The risk of cardiomyopathy may be increased at lower cumulative doses in patients with prior mediastinal irradiation. See additional information on Cardiomyopathy in Warnings and Precautions below.

Acute infusion-related reactions consisting of, but not limited to, flushing, shortness of breath, facial swelling, headache, chills, back pain, tightness in the chest or throat, and/or hypotension occurred in 11% of patients with solid tumors treated with DOXIL®. Serious, life-threatening and fatal infusion reactions have been reported. Medications/emergency equipment to treat such reactions should be available for immediate use. See additional information on Infusion-Related Reactions in Warnings and Precautions below.

Contraindications

DOXIL® is contraindicated in patients who have a history of severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, to doxorubicin HCl.

Warnings and Precautions

Cardiomyopathy: Doxorubicin HCl can result in myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure. The risk of cardiomyopathy with doxorubicin HCl is generally proportional to the cumulative exposure. The relationship between cumulative DOXIL® dose and the risk of cardiac toxicity has not been determined. Assess left ventricular cardiac function (e.g. MUGA or echocardiogram) prior to initiation of DOXIL®, during treatment to detect acute changes, and after treatment to detect delayed cardiotoxicity. Administer DOXIL® to patients with a history of cardiovascular disease only when the potential benefit of treatment outweighs the risk.

Infusion-Related Reactions: Serious and sometimes life-threatening infusion-related reactions characterized by one or more of the following symptoms can occur with DOXIL®: flushing, shortness of breath, facial swelling, headache, chills, chest pain, back pain, tightness in the chest and throat, fever, tachycardia, pruritus, rash, cyanosis, syncope, bronchospasm, asthma, apnea, and hypotension. The majority of infusion-related events occurred during the first infusion. Ensure that medications to treat infusion-related reactions and cardiopulmonary resuscitative equipment is available for immediate use prior to initiation of DOXIL®. Initiate DOXIL® infusions at a rate of 1 mg/min and increase rate as tolerated. In the event of an infusion-related reaction, temporarily stop the drug until resolution then resume at a reduced infusion rate. Discontinue DOXIL® infusion for serious or life-threatening infusion-related reactions.

Hand-foot syndrome (HFS): HFS may occur during therapy with DOXIL®. Based on HFS toxicity grade, dose reduction, delay in administration, or discontinuation of DOXIL® may be required.

  • HFS was generally observed after 2 to 3 cycles of treatment, but may occur earlier

  • Delay DOXIL® for the first episode of Grade 2 or greater HFS

  • Discontinue DOXIL® if HFS is severe and debilitating

Secondary Oral Neoplasms: Cases of secondary oral cancer have been reported in patients with more than one year's exposure to DOXIL®. Cases were diagnosed both during treatment and up to 6 years after the last dose. Patients should be examined at regular intervals for the presence of oral ulceration or any oral discomfort that may be indicative of secondary oral cancer.

Embryofetal Toxicity: Based on animal data, DOXIL® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during and for 6 months after treatment with DOXIL®.

Adverse Reactions

Most common adverse reactions observed with DOXIL® (>20%) are asthenia, fatigue, fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, diarrhea, constipation, hand-foot syndrome, rash, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia.

Use in Specific Populations

Lactation: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, discontinue nursing during treatment with DOXIL®.

INDICATIONS

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer whose disease has progressed or recurred after platinum-based chemotherapy.

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients after failure of prior systemic chemotherapy or intolerance to such therapy.

DOXIL® in combination with bortezomib is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have not previously received bortezomib and have received at least one prior therapy.

Click here to see the full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNINGS.

020669-150414

INDICATIONS

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer whose disease has progressed or recurred after platinum-based chemotherapy.

DOXIL® is indicated for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma in patients after failure of prior systemic chemotherapy or intolerance to such therapy.

DOXIL® in combination with bortezomib is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have not previously received bortezomib and have received at least one prior therapy.

Please see full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNINGS, for DOXIL® at www.DOXIL.com.

020669-150414